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日本その日その日 E.S.モース(石川欣一訳) 第二十五章 東京に関する覚書(22) 変わった袖垣のある家






* この絵は『日本の家庭』に出ているのだが、それが日本趣味の特質を示すものとして、そのもとの写生図をここに出さざるを得なかった。

** 私はこの袖垣を沢山出した日本の本を何冊か持っている。また『日本の家庭』には、日本の家庭で写生した袖垣がいくつか出してある。



   Figure 729 * is taken from a humble house that I passed every day on my way to the University. The occupant had some pottery he wished to show me, and while he was taking the pieces from the boxes I made the sketch. The interesting way in which a large fragment of an old shipwreck is worked into the general effect is unique. The rich, gray color of the wood with warm, red stains of iron rust, the little holes bored by Teredos, and the appearances of age are all features which the Japanese admire. The door of the latrine is just beyond and this ship fragment takes the place of the sode-gaki. I have often observed a peculiar fence which projects from the veranda, or from the side of a house, never more than four or five feet. It hides some objectionable features from the veranda, and we might adopt it with advantage. It is called sode-gaki. Kaki means "fence" and is changed to gaki for euphony; sode means "sleeve," it being shaped like the sleeve of a Japanese dress. **


* I cannot resist reproducing the original sketch, a drawing of which appeared in Japanese Homes, as most characteristic of Japanese taste.

** I have Japanese books giving many of these sleeve-fences, and in Japanese Homes I have figured a number of them drawn from the gardens here.


「ふなくい虫」軟体動物門斧足綱真弁鰓目ニオガイ上科フナクイムシ科 Teredinidae に属する海産二枚貝の一種。多数の種がある。かつて高校教師時代の物理の教師でさえ、この穿孔痕を見て貝類だと私が言っても信じなかったぐらいだから、敢えて注しておきたい。以下、まずはウィキの「フナクイムシ」より。『水管が細長く発達しているため、蠕虫(ぜんちゅう)状の姿をしているが、二枚の貝殻が体の前面にある。貝殻は木に穴を空けるために使われ、独特の形状になっている』。『その生態は独特で、海中の木材を食べて穴を空けてしまう。木材の穴を空けた部分には薄い石灰質の膜を張りつけ巣穴にする。巣穴は外界に通じる開口部を持ち、ここから水管を出して水の出し入れをする。危険を感じたときは、水管を引っ込めて尾栓で蓋をすれば何日も生きのびることができる』。『体内の特殊な器官「デエー腺」(gland of Deshayes)内に共生するバクテリアの分泌する酵素によって、木のセルロースを消化することができる』以下、波部忠重先生の「続 原色日本貝類図鑑」(昭和三六(一九六一)年保育社刊)より。そこには日本産は十一属二十二種とある。殻の『球状角頭は小さな』三角形を成し、『それと殻體前部とは細い肋があってその上は鋸歯状で』、『殻体と殻翼ろは喰違って殻の内側に後内棚をつくる。殻頂の下から棒状突起が出ている。石灰質の棲管をつくり』、『種として木材に穿孔するが』、軟体部は細長く、『穿孔口の水管の出るところに栓の役をする尾栓』を持っており、この形状(矢羽状・麦穂状等)によって分類されてきた。同波部図鑑五種を挙げてあるが、その内でも、

 ヤツフナクイムシ Lyrodus siamensis

 フナクイムシ Teredo navalis



「この絵は『日本の家庭』に出ている」繰り返し出てくるJapanese Homes and Their Surroundings(一八八五年刊)の第二章の日本の「家屋の形態」の中の第四十九図に相当するものを指す。実際には本図よりもより緻密に描かれており、奥の景色もより明確に分かる。しかも当該図を語る本文も本書よりも遙かに詳細である。以下、原文と図(冒頭に配した。キャプションは“HOUSE IN TOKIO.”。図は二〇〇二年八坂書房刊の斎藤正二・藤本周一訳「日本人の住まい」のものを用いた)を示す。



   In the cities nothing is more surprising to a foreigner than to go from the dust and turmoil of a busy street directly into a rustic yard and the felicity of quiet country life. On one of the busy streets of Tokio I had often passed a low shop, the barred front of which was never opened to traffic, nor was there ever any one present with whom to deal. I used often to peer between the bars ; and from the form of the wooden boxes on the step-like shelves within, I knew that the occupant was a dealer in old pottery. One day I called through the bars several times, and finally a man pushed back the screen in the rear of the shop and bade me come in by way of a narrow alley a little way up the street. This I did, and soon came to a gate that led me into one of the neatest and cleanest little gardens it is possible to imagine. The man was evidently just getting ready for a tea-party, and, as is customary in winter, the garden had been liberally strewn with pine-needles, which had then been neatly swept from the few paths and formed in thick mats around some of the shrubs and trees. The master had already accosted me from the verandah, and after bringing the customary hibachi, over which I warmed my hands, and tea and cake, he brought forth some rare old pottery.

   The verandah and a portion of this house as it appeared from the garden are given in fig. 49; At the end of the verandah is seen a narrow partition, made out of the planks of an old ship ; it is secured to the side of the house by a huge piece of bamboo. One is greatly interested to see how curiously, and oftentimes artistically, the old worm-eaten and blackened fragments of a shipwreck are worked into the various parts of a house, — this being an odd fancy of the Japanese house-builder. Huge and irregular-shaped logs will often form tlie cross-piece to a gateway ; rudder-posts fixed in the ground form the support of bronze or pottery vessels to hold water. But fragments of a shipwreck are most commonly seen. This wood is always rich in color, and has an antique appearance, — these qualities commending it at once to the Japanese eye, and rendering it,

with its associations, an attractive object for their purposes.

   In the house above mentioned a portion of a vessel's side or bottom had been used bodily for a screen at the end of the verandah, — for just beyond was the latrine, from the side of which is seen jutting another wing, consisting of a single weatherworn plank bordered by a bamboo-post. This was a screen to shut out the kitchen-yard beyond. Various stepping-stones of irregular shape, as well as blackened planks, were arranged around the yard in picturesque disorder. The sketch conveys, with more or less accuracy, one of the many phases of Japanese taste in these matters.

   The wood-work from the rafters of the verandah roof above, to the planks below, was undefiled by oil, paint, wood-filling, or varnish of any kind. The carpentry was light, yet durable and thoroughly constructive ; while outside and inside every feature was as neat and clean as a cabinet. The room bordering this verandah is shown in fig. 125.


 続いて、前掲末尾にある第三部の「家屋の内部」の125図(冒頭に配した。キャプションは“GCEST-ROOM OF DWELLING IN TOKIO.”。底本は同前)と当該図解説の原文をも示す。



   In fig. 125 is shown a room of the plainest description ; it was severe in its simplicity. Here the tokonoma, though on that side of the room running at right angles with the verandah, was in the corner of the room, while the chigai-dana was next to the verandah. The recesses were quite deep, — the chigai-dmia having a single broad shelf, as broad as the depth of the recess, this forming the top of a spacious closet beneath. In the partition dividing these two recesses was a long narrow rectangular opening. The little bamboo flower-holder hanging to the post of the toko-hashira had, besides a few flowers, two long twigs of willow, which were made to bend gracefully in front of the tokonoma. The character of this room indicated that its owner was a lover of the tea-ceremonies.


 これらと上記の本書の原文を比較されれば分かる通り、その情報量はこのJapanese Homes and Their Surroundingsの方が圧倒的に多く、より詳細、より正確であると私は判断する。ここではモースはこの家を「賤しい家」としか述べていないのであるが、そちらでは実はこの家の主人は素人ではなく、古い陶磁器を商う古物商であり、店舗もあることが判るのである。しかも、モースが逢った際、彼は「茶の湯」の用意をしていたとあって、ここで単に「賤しい家」と称するようなものではないことを判ってくるのである。縁側に座ったモースにこの主人は古い陶磁器の逸品を見せて呉れ、その時、その縁側から見えた客間のスケッチが125図である。この「賤しい家」に、あなたは、簡素乍らも、この実に落ち着いた『どこを見てもこぎれい』(斎藤正二・藤本周一訳「日本人の住まい」より)な座敷を果たして想像出来たであろうか?(私は出来なかったのである) 更に、125図の解説中には、『この部屋の』如何にも質素乍らも実に細かな部分で風流の行き届いた『特徴から察するに、この家の主人は茶の湯の嗜(たしな)みのある人と見受けられた』(引用は同前)と結んでいるのである。まさに「賤しい家」は都会の中にひっそりとある隠れた「風趣の家」であり、この主人も確かに貧しいに違いないものの、俗界にあって驚くべき風趣の中に生きている好人物であることが、これらの描写を読んでみて初めて判るのである。さればこそ、冒頭で英文全文を引いた。本来なら、斎藤正二・藤本周一訳「日本人の住まい」の当該箇所を総て引きたいところであるが、著作権侵害になる分量にも思えるので涙を呑んで控えたのである。

「『日本の家庭』には、日本の家庭で写生した袖垣がいくつか出してある」これは“Japanese Homes and Their Surroundings”の第五章の日本家屋の「エントランスとアプローチ」(入口とそこまでの通路)の中に、三枚の絵が載るものを指す。解説原文と三枚の図(キャプションは。総て“SODE-GAKI.”である。画像底本は同前)を示す。但し、原文の最後の、本件とは異なる、張り出しの格子窓の叙述部分はカットしてあるので、悪しからず。








   In the sode-gaki, or sleeve-fence, the greatest ingenuity in design and fabrication is shown ; their variety seems endless. I have a Japanese work especially devoted to this kind of fence, in which are hundreds of different designs, — square tops, curving tops, circular or concave edges, panels cut out. and an infinite variety shown in the minor . details. This kind of fence is always built out from the side of the house or from a more permanent fence or wall. It is rarely over four or five feet in length, and is strictly ornamental, though often useful in screening some feature of the house that is desired to be concealed.

  Fig. 259 represents a fence in which cylindrical bundles of rush are bound together by a black-fibred root, and held together by bamboo pieces. Little bundles of fagots are tied to each columns as an odd feature of decoration. In fig. 260 cylindrical bundles of rush and twigs are affixed in pairs on each side of bamboo ties, which run from the outer post to the wooden fence from which the sode-gaki springs. In still another form (fig. 261) the upper portion consists of a bundle of stout reeds tied by broad bands of the black fibre so often used in such work. From this apparently hangs a broad mass of brown rush, spreading as it reaches the ground. Such fences might be added to our gardens, as the materials — such as reeds, rush, twigs, etc. — are easily obtained in this country.



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